|The following is a detailed description of the methodology in calculating emissions reductions achieved from the hotel shuttle consolidations. It details the specific contributing factors addressed by Destination Shuttle Services.|
|Universe of Participants and their historical activities:|
|Destination Shuttle Services currently provides consolidated shuttle services for 13 hotel properties within 4 miles of LAX.
Prior to consolidation, these 13 properties operated a combined fleet of 65 buses of various sizes and fuel types, comprised of 41% gasoline engines and 59% diesel engines. The average model year of these vehicles at the time of consolidation in May of 2006 was 1999. All were in compliance with California’s emissions standards based on the manufacturers model year at the time placed in service.
Combined, these 13 properties operated approximately 435,000 trips into and out of LAX, transporting 2,595,000 passengers annually. The average round trip mileage of each trip operated is estimated at 6.27 miles (each vehicle circulated through the arrival and departure levels of LAX with each trip), totaling 2,730,000 miles annually.
|Emissions from the operation of vehicles is comprised of 4 specific pollutants:|
|Nitrogen oxide (NOx)|
|Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NMHC)|
|Carbon monoxide (CO)|
|Particulate Matter (PM)|
|Pre-consolidation, the estimated emissions from the operation of 65 vehicles averaging 6.5 miles per gallon over a total of 2,730,000 miles, burning 420,000 gallons of fuel is as follows:|
|NOx1 (.148 lbs per gallon) = 62,160 lbs/yr|
|CO22 (27.824 lbs per gallon) = 11,686,080 lbs/yr|
|NMHC (0.0173 lbs per gallon) = 7,257 lbs/yr|
|PM (0.0012 lbs per gallon) = 519 lbs/yr|
|Destination Shuttle Services took three specific steps, which significantly contributed to emissions reductions. First, change fuel and upgrade/update equipment. The conversion of all vehicles in the fleet from gasoline/diesel engines to a mix of CNG and propane powered buses, and upgrading the fleet from an average manufacturers model year of 1999 to 2007, created a much more efficient platform.
Secondly, Destination Shuttle Services employed an active “pooled” dispatch process, replacing the standard assigned vehicle to route model, with a dynamic “next available vehicle” system, which reduces the total fleet size and buses in service required to meet the needs of the hotels. This approach resulted in Destination Shuttle Services transporting 2,640,000 passengers with a fleet of 32 buses delivering 219,000 trips -- a reduction of 216,000 trips, operating 1,344,000 miles a reduction of more than 1,386,000 miles annually.
The resulting emissions reductions are dramatic. Based on CNG powered vehicles obtaining 4.8 miles per gallon, Destination Shuttle Services fleet burns 280,000 equivalent gallons of fuel, with the following results:
|Finally, in addition to the direct emissions impact, Destination Shuttle Services has removed 1,386,000 miles of surface traffic from roadways serving LAX and the terminal itself. Total trips into LAX have been reduced by 219,000 annually. Each bus entering LAX makes on average 4 stops as it proceeds through the airport. Each bus occupies 32 feet of space, represent 128 of curb space occupied at LAX for each trip cycle. 219,000 trips removed represents more than 5,300 miles of freed up space, benefiting all that use the LAX terminal.
Vehicle capacity utilization was also increased: from 5.96 passengers per bus trip to more than 12.05 passengers per trip -- an efficiency gain of 202%.
Destination Shuttle Services, is currently working on ways to increase efficiency even more. Through modifications in dispatch procedures, DSS is focused on reducing average miles per trip by 15% through dynamic re-routing of buses to eliminate some “deadhead miles”, those miles operated to reposition buses on route assignments rather than transport passengers.
|5% of all passengers traveling by air utilize hotel shuttle services for convenient transport to and from the serving airports. Based on the economic report prepared for 2008 by the Air Transport Association , 769.2 million travelers flew nation wide, meaning that more than 38,460,000 people used hotel shuttle bus service. LAX represents only 6.8% of the total number of people who rely on this service.
Conservative calculations based on the figures above indicate that there are more than 12,450,000 shuttle bus trips operated throughout the country the “old way” which could be cut in half through creative management and programs like the one Destination Shuttle Services has designed for the Los Angeles International Airport.
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